CetinGrad.org

Full eBooks. A list of all the free ePUB, PDF and MOBI eBooks published on CetinGrad.org

Download Medieval Perceptual Puzzles PDF

Medieval Perceptual Puzzles


Author :
Publisher : Investigating Medieval Philoso
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9004408479
Pages : 398 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.0/5 (44 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Medieval Perceptual Puzzles by Elena Baltuta:

Download or read book Medieval Perceptual Puzzles written by Elena Baltuta and published by Investigating Medieval Philoso. This book was released on 2019-11-21 with total page 398 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Medieval Perceptual Puzzles: Theories of Sense Perception in the 13th and 14th Centuries is an anthology of texts offering an in-depth analysis of Latin medieval theories of sense-perception. The volume offers historical and systematic approaches to themes and questions that have shaped the medieval accounts of sense-perception.

Download Medieval Perceptual Puzzles PDF

Medieval Perceptual Puzzles


Author :
Publisher : BRILL
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9789004413030
Pages : 407 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.1/5 (33 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Medieval Perceptual Puzzles by :

Download or read book Medieval Perceptual Puzzles written by and published by BRILL. This book was released on 2019-11-26 with total page 407 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Medieval Perceptual Puzzles: Theories of Sense Perception in the 13th and 14th Centuries is an anthology of texts offering an in-depth analysis of Latin medieval theories of sense-perception. The volume offers historical and systematic approaches to themes and questions that have shaped the medieval accounts of sense-perception.

Download Women's Perspectives on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy PDF

Women's Perspectives on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy


Author :
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783030731908
Pages : 350 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.3/5 (19 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Women's Perspectives on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy by Isabelle Chouinard:

Download or read book Women's Perspectives on Ancient and Medieval Philosophy written by Isabelle Chouinard and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2021 with total page 350 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book promotes the research of present-day women working in ancient and medieval philosophy, with more than 60 women having contributed in some way to the volume in a fruitful collaboration. It contains 22 papers organized into ten distinct parts spanning the sixth century BCE to the fifteenth century CE. Each part has the same structure: it features, first, a paper which sets up the discussion, and then, one or two responses that open new perspectives and engage in further reflections. Our authors contributions address pivotal moments and players in the history of philosophy: women philosophers in antiquity, Cleobulina of Rhodes, Plato, Lucretius, Bardaisan of Edessa, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Plotinus, Porphyry, Peter Abelard, Robert Kilwardby, William Ockham, John Buridan, and Isotta Nogarola. The result is a thought-provoking collection of papers that will be of interest to historians of philosophy from all horizons. Far from being an isolated effort, this book is a contribution to the ever-growing number of initiatives which endeavour to showcase the work of women in philosophy.

Download Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy Volume 9 PDF

Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy Volume 9


Author :
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9780192844637
Pages : 303 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.4/5 (463 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy Volume 9 by Robert Pasnau:

Download or read book Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy Volume 9 written by Robert Pasnau and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2021-08-20 with total page 303 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: "This series covers all aspects of medieval philosophy, including the Latin, Arabic and Hebrew traditions, and runs from the end of antiquity into the Renaissance. It publishes new work by leading scholars in the field, and combines historical scholarship with philosophical acuteness. The papers will address a wide range of topics, from political philosophy to ethics, and logic to metaphysics."--Publisher.

Download The Political Animal in Medieval Philosophy PDF

The Political Animal in Medieval Philosophy


Author :
Publisher : BRILL
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9789004438460
Pages : 448 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.3/5 (846 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review The Political Animal in Medieval Philosophy by Juhana Toivanen:

Download or read book The Political Animal in Medieval Philosophy written by Juhana Toivanen and published by BRILL. This book was released on 2020-10-12 with total page 448 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In The Political Animal in Medieval Philosophy Juhana Toivanen investigates the foundations of human social life through the Aristotelian notion of ‘political animal’, as it was used in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.

Download Philosophical Problems in Sense Perception: Testing the Limits of Aristotelianism PDF

Philosophical Problems in Sense Perception: Testing the Limits of Aristotelianism


Author :
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783030569464
Pages : 258 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.6/5 (946 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Philosophical Problems in Sense Perception: Testing the Limits of Aristotelianism by David Bennett:

Download or read book Philosophical Problems in Sense Perception: Testing the Limits of Aristotelianism written by David Bennett and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2020-12-15 with total page 258 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This volume focuses on philosophical problems concerning sense perception in the history of philosophy. It consists of thirteen essays that analyse the philosophical tradition originating in Aristotle’s writings. Each essay tackles a particular problem that tests the limits of Aristotle’s theory of perception and develops it in new directions. The problems discussed range from simultaneous perception to causality in perception, from the representational nature of sense-objects to the role of conscious attention, and from the physical/mental divide to perception as quasi-rational judgement. The volume gives an equal footing to Greek, Arabic, and Latin philosophical traditions. It makes a substantial contribution not just to the study of the Aristotelian analysis of sense perception, but to its reception in the commentary tradition and beyond. Thus, the papers address developments in Alexander of Aphrodisias, Themistius, Avicenna, John of Jandun, Nicole Oresme, and Sayf al-Din al-Amidi, among others. The result of this is a coherent collection that attacks a well-defined topic from a wide range of perspectives and across philosophical traditions.

Download The Medieval Life of Language PDF

The Medieval Life of Language


Author :
Publisher : Amsterdam University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9789048550166
Pages : 265 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.5/5 (16 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review The Medieval Life of Language by Mark Amsler:

Download or read book The Medieval Life of Language written by Mark Amsler and published by Amsterdam University Press. This book was released on 2021-06-16 with total page 265 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The Medieval Life of Language: Grammar and Pragmatics from Bacon to Kempe explores the complex history of medieval pragmatic theory and ideas and metapragmatic awareness across social discourses. Pragmatic thinking about language and communication are revealed in grammar, semiotics, philosophy, and literature. Part historical reconstruction, part social history, part language theory, Amsler supplements the usual materials for the history of medieval linguistics and discusses the pragmatic implications of grammatical treatises on the interjection, Bacon's sign theory, logic texts, Chaucer's poetry, inquisitors' accounts of heretic speech, and life writing by William Thorpe and Margery Kempe. Medieval and contemporary pragmatic theory are contrasted in terms of their philosophical and linguistic orientations. Aspects of medieval pragmatic theory and practice, especially polysemy, equivocation, affective speech, and recontextualization, show how pragmatic discourse informed social controversies and attitudes toward sincere, vague, and heretical speech. Relying on Bakhtinian dialogism, critical discourse analysis, and conversation analysis, Amsler situates a key period in the history of linguistics within broader social and discursive fields of practice.

Download Aristotelian Subjectivism: Francisco Suárez’s Philosophy of Perception PDF

Aristotelian Subjectivism: Francisco Suárez’s Philosophy of Perception


Author :
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783030673413
Pages : 304 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.7/5 (341 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Aristotelian Subjectivism: Francisco Suárez’s Philosophy of Perception by Daniel Heider:

Download or read book Aristotelian Subjectivism: Francisco Suárez’s Philosophy of Perception written by Daniel Heider and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2021-07-20 with total page 304 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This monograph presents new material on Francisco Suárez’s comprehensive theory of sense perception. The core theme is perceptual intentionality in Suárez’s theory of the senses, external and internal, as presented in his Commentaria una cum quaestionibus in libros Aristotelis De anima published in 1621. The author targets the question of the multistage genesis of perceptual acts by considering the ontological “items” involved in the procession of sensory information. However, the structural issue is not left aside, and the nature of the relationship due to which our perceptions are mental representations of this or that object is also considered. The heuristic historiographical background includes not only the theories of classical authors, such as Aristotle and Aquinas, but also those of late medieval authors of the fourteenth century. These are headed by John Duns Scotus, John of Jandun, Peter Auriol and Peter John Olivi. Readers will discover the differences between Suárez’s and Aquinas’s views, as well as other sources that may have served as positive inspiration for the Jesuit’s theory. By considering the late medieval philosophy of the fourteenth century, this book helps, to a certain extent, to fill a gap in the historiography of philosophy regarding the link between late medieval and early modern scholasticism. In the first part of the book, the metaphysics of the soul and powers is considered. Chapters on the external senses follow, covering topics such as the sensible species, the causes of sensation, self-awareness, and the ordering of the external senses. A further chapter is devoted to the internal senses and the author argues that by reducing the number and functional scope of the interior senses Suárez deepens the gap between the external senses and the intellect, but he reduces it through emphasizing the unifying efficacy of the soul.This book brings a synthetic and unifying perspective to contemporary research and will particularly appeal to graduate students and researchers in theology and philosophy, especially philosophy of mind.

Download Early Thirteenth-Century English Franciscan Thought PDF

Early Thirteenth-Century English Franciscan Thought


Author :
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783110684872
Pages : 341 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.8/5 (487 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Early Thirteenth-Century English Franciscan Thought by Lydia Schumacher:

Download or read book Early Thirteenth-Century English Franciscan Thought written by Lydia Schumacher and published by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. This book was released on 2021-10-25 with total page 341 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Begründet von Michael Schmaus †, Werner Dettloff † und Richard Heinzmann Fortgeführt unter Mitwirkung von Ulrich Horst Herausgegeben von Isabelle Mandrella und Martin Thurner Das Grabmann-Institut ist eine im deutschsprachigen Raum einzigartige Einrichtung zur Erforschung und Lehre der Theologiegeschichte. Es wurde 1953 von Michael Schmaus als Institut zur Erforschung der mittelalterlichen Theologie und Philosophie gegründet, das die Forschungen und die Tradition des Vorgängers von Schmaus auf dem Münchener Lehrstuhl für Dogmatik, Martin Grabmann, fortführen soll. In der Reihe "Veröffentlichungen des Grabmann-Instituts" werden Editionen und Studien publiziert, die entweder am Grabmann-Institut selbst entstanden sind oder einen wertvollen Beitrag zu dessen Forschungsschwerpunkten beinhalten. Das Schwergewicht der Publikationsreihe liegt auf der mittelalterlichen Theologie und Philosophie, wobei sich der zeitliche Bogen aber von der ausgehenden Antike bis in die Neuzeit spannt. Das historische Interesse verbindet sich mit dem systematischen Blickwinkel. In den Bänden werden Themen aus allen systematischen Bereichen der mittelalterlichen Theologie und Philosophie behandelt sowie herausragende und bisher weniger bekannte Theologen mit ihren Werken und ihrem Einfluss vorgestellt. Gebührende Berücksichtigung finden auch die Gebiete Mystik und Spiritualität, die wesentlich zur mittelalterlichen Theologie und Philosophie gehören. Zum Martin-Grabmann-Forschungsinstitut für Mittelalterliche Theologie und Philosophie.

Download The Senses and the History of Philosophy PDF

The Senses and the History of Philosophy


Author :
Publisher : Routledge
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9781351731065
Pages : 365 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.3/5 (16 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review The Senses and the History of Philosophy by Brian Glenney:

Download or read book The Senses and the History of Philosophy written by Brian Glenney and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2019-02-21 with total page 365 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The study of perception and the role of the senses have recently risen to prominence in philosophy and are now a major area of study and research. However, the philosophical history of the senses remains a relatively neglected subject. Moving beyond the current philosophical canon, this outstanding collection offers a wide-ranging and diverse philosophical exploration of the senses, from the classical period to the present day. Written by a team of international contributors, it is divided into six parts: Perception from Non-Western Perspectives Perception in the Ancient Period Perception in the Medieval Latin/Arabic Period Perception in the Early Modern Period Perception in the Post-Kantian Period Perception in the Contemporary Period. The volume challenges conventional philosophical study of perception by covering a wide range of significant, as well as hitherto overlooked, topics, such as perceptual judgment, temporal and motion illusions, mirror and picture perception, animal senses and cross-modal integration. By investigating the history of the senses in thinkers such as Plotinus, Auriol, Berkeley and Cavendish; and considering the history of the senses in diverse philosophical traditions, including Chinese, Indian, Byzantine, Greek and Latin it brings a fresh approach to studying the history of philosophy itself. Including a thorough introduction as well as introductions to each section by the editors, The Senses and the History of Philosophy is essential reading for students and researchers in the history of philosophy, perception, philosophy of mind, philosophical psychology, aesthetics and eastern and non-western philosophy. It will also be extremely useful for those in related disciplines such as psychology, religion, sociology, intellectual history and cognitive sciences.

Download Active Cognition PDF

Active Cognition


Author :
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783030353049
Pages : 196 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.5/5 (34 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Active Cognition by Véronique Decaix:

Download or read book Active Cognition written by Véronique Decaix and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2020-03-10 with total page 196 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This edited work draws on a range of contributed expertise to trace the fortune of an Aristotelian thesis over different periods in the history of philosophy. It presents eight cases of direct or indirect challenges to the Aristotelian passive account of human cognition, taking the reader from late antiquity to the 20th century. Chapters analyse the (often indirect) effect of Aristotle’s account of cognition on later periods. In his influential De anima, Aristotle describes human cognition, both sensitive and intellectual, as the reception of a form in the cognitive subject. Aristotle’s account has been commonly interpreted as fundamentally passive – the cognitive subject is a passive actor upon which a cognitive process is acted by the object. However, at least from the time of Alexander of Aphrodisias onwards, this interpretation has been challenged by authors who posit a fundamental active aspect of cognition. Readers will discover how one or more of three concerns – ontological superiority, direct realism and moral responsibility – drive the active accounts of cognition. Contributed chapters from top scholars examine how these three concerns lead thinkers to take issue with the idea that cognition is a passive process. The authors consider Jesuit accounts of cognition, Malebranche on judgment, and Wittgenstein on perception, as well as Stumpf on active cognition, among other relevant works. This book is ideally suited to scholars of philosophy, especially those with an interest in medieval epistemology, the influence of Aristotle, philosophy of mind and theories of cognition.

Download Human Nature in Early Franciscan Thought PDF

Human Nature in Early Franciscan Thought


Author :
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9781009201117
Pages : 361 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.0/5 (111 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Human Nature in Early Franciscan Thought by Lydia Schumacher:

Download or read book Human Nature in Early Franciscan Thought written by Lydia Schumacher and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2022-12-31 with total page 361 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: In this book, Lydia Schumacher challenges the common assumption that early Franciscan thought simply reiterates the longstanding tradition of Augustine. She demonstrates how scholars from this tradition incorporated the work of Islamic and Jewish philosophers, whose works had recently been translated from Arabic, with a view to developing a unique approach to questions of human nature. These questions pertain to perennial philosophical concerns about the relationship between the body and the soul, the work of human cognition and sensation, and the power of free will. By highlighting the Arabic sources of early Franciscan views on these matters, Schumacher illustrates how scholars working in the early thirteenth century anticipated later developments in Franciscan thought which have often been described as novel or unprecedented. Above all, her study demonstrates that the early Franciscan philosophy of human nature was formulated with a view to bolstering the order's specific theological and religious ideals.

Download Robert Kilwardby PDF

Robert Kilwardby


Author :
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9780197510872
Pages : 321 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.1/5 (87 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Robert Kilwardby by José Filipe Silva:

Download or read book Robert Kilwardby written by José Filipe Silva and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2020-05-19 with total page 321 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Archbishop of Canterbury from 1272 until his death in 1279, the Dominican friar Robert Kildwardby has long been known primarily for his participation in the Oxford Prohibitions of 1277, but his contributions spread far wider. A central figure in the Late Middle Ages, Kilwardby was one of the earliest commentators of the work of Aristotle, as well as an unwavering proponent of Augustinian thought and a believer of the plurality of forms. Although he was a prominent thinker of the time, key areas of his philosophical thought remain unexamined in contemporary scholarship. José Filipe Silva here offers the first book-length analysis of Kilwardby's full body of work, which is essential in understanding both the reception of Aristotle in the Latin West and the developments of later medieval philosophy. Beginning with his early philosophical commitments, Silva tracks Kilwardby's life and academic thought, including his theories on knowledge, moral happiness, and the nature of the soul, along with his attempts to reconcile Augustinian and Aristotelian thought. Ultimately, Robert Kilwardby offers a comprehensive overview of an unsung scholar, solidifying his philosophical legacy as one of the most influential authors of the Late Middle Ages.

Download Vegetative Powers PDF

Vegetative Powers


Author :
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9783030697099
Pages : 459 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.9/5 (79 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Vegetative Powers by Fabrizio Baldassarri:

Download or read book Vegetative Powers written by Fabrizio Baldassarri and published by Springer Nature. This book was released on 2021-05-25 with total page 459 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The volume analyzes the natural philosophical accounts and debates concerning the vegetative powers, namely nutrition, growth, and reproduction. While principally focusing on the early modern approaches to the lower functions of the soul, readers will discover the roots of these approaches back to the Ancient times, as the volume highlights the role of three strands that help shape the study of life in the Medieval and early modern natural philosophies. From late antiquity to the early modern period, the vegetative soul and its cognate concepts have played a substantial role in specifying life, living functions, and living bodies, sometimes blurring the line between living and non-living nature, and, at other moments, resulting in a strong restriction of life to a mechanical system of operations and powers. Unearthing the history of the vegetative soul as a shrub of interconnected concepts, the 24 contributions of the volume fill a crucial gap in scholarship, ultimately outlining the importance of vegetal processes of incessant proliferation, generation, and organic growth as the roots of life in natural philosophical interpretations.

Download Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act PDF

Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act


Author :
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9781108988667
Pages : pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.8/5 (866 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act by Can Laurens Löwe:

Download or read book Thomas Aquinas on the Metaphysics of the Human Act written by Can Laurens Löwe and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2021-07-08 with total page pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: This book offers a novel account of Aquinas's theory of the human act. It argues that Aquinas takes a human act to be a composite of two power-exercises, where one relates to the other as form to matter. The formal component is an act of the will, and the material component is a power-exercise caused by the will, which Aquinas refers to as the 'commanded act.' The book also argues that Aquinas conceptualizes the act of free choice as a hylomorphic composite: it is, materially, an act of the will, but it inherits a form from reason. As the book aims to show, the core idea of Aquinas's hylomorphic action theory is that the exercise of one power can structure the exercise of another power, and this provides a helpful way to think of the presence of cognition in conation and of intention in bodily movement.

Download Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy, Volume XI PDF

Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy, Volume XI


Author :
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9780192884749
Pages : 243 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.8/5 (474 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy, Volume XI by Donald Rutherford:

Download or read book Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy, Volume XI written by Donald Rutherford and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2023-02-17 with total page 243 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy is an annual series, presenting a selection of the best current work in the history of early modern philosophy. It focuses on the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries - the extraordinary period of intellectual flourishing that begins, very roughly, with Descartes and his contemporaries and ends with Kant. It also publishes papers on thinkers or movements outside of that framework, provided they are important in illuminating early modern thought. The articles in OSEMP will be of importance to specialists within the discipline, but the editors also intend that they should appeal to a larger audience of philosophers, intellectual historians, and others who are interested in the development of modern thought.

Download The Singular Voice of Being PDF

The Singular Voice of Being


Author :
Publisher : Fordham Univ Press
Release Date :
ISBN 10 : 9780823284597
Pages : 304 pages
File Format : PDF, EPUB, TEXT, KINDLE or MOBI
Rating : 4.8/5 (459 users download)

GO BOOK!

Summary Book Review The Singular Voice of Being by Andrew T. LaZella:

Download or read book The Singular Voice of Being written by Andrew T. LaZella and published by Fordham Univ Press. This book was released on 2019-05-07 with total page 304 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book excerpt: The Singular Voice of Being reconsiders John Duns Scotus’s well-studied theory of the univocity of being in light of his less explored discussions of ultimate difference. Ultimate difference is a notion introduced by Aristotle and known by the Aristotelian tradition, but one that, this book argues, Scotus radically retrofits to buttress his doctrine of univocity. Scotus broadens ultimate difference to include not only specific differences, but also intrinsic modes of being (e.g., finite/infinite) and principles of individuation (i.e., haecceitates). Furthermore, he deepens it by divorcing it from anything with categorical classification, such as substantial form. Scotus uses his revamped notion of ultimate difference as a means of dividing being, despite the longstanding Parmenidean arguments against such division. The book highlights the unique role of difference in Scotus’s thought, which conceives of difference not as a fall from the perfect unity of being but rather as a perfective determination of an otherwise indifferent concept. The division of being culminates in individuation as the final degree of perfection, which constitutes indivisible (i.e., singular) degrees of being. This systematic study of ultimate difference opens new dimensions for understanding Scotus’s dense thought with respect to not only univocity, but also to individuation, cognition, and acts of the will.